Bienvenidos somos ASPROUNION

Características del café

El café producido por los asociados en ASPROUNIÓN tiene las siguientes características: bajo sombra: son más de 15 frutales y árboles de pan coger que acompañan la caficultura, proveen una protección para la inclemencia del clima, es habitado de pájaros, aves, mamíferos y otra fauna, aporta materia orgánica al suelo y lo protegen, genera un microclima que ayuda con la calidad del grano. Las variedades como Caturra, Colombia, Bourbon llevan establecidas por más de 60 años y en los últimos 10 años se están estableciendo nuevas como Bourbon rosado, Geisha, moca y otros varietales con excelentes resultados. Estos cafés de por sí producen una taza SCAA por encima de 84+ pero con procesos de beneficio que se están adoptando se ha logrado tazas de hasta 92 puntos SCAA.

Proceso natural o en seco:

El método por vía seca es también conocido como proceso natural y es tal vez el más antiguo y más sencillo ya que requiere poca maquinaria, aunque es más laborioso y se requiere más espacio para el proceso de secado.

El método consiste en secar la cereza entera después de haberla recolectado, sin remover la piel, cáscara o cereza.

En primer lugar, se clasifican y limpian las cerezas recolectadas, para separar las que estén maduras o estén dañadas o afectadas por algún insecto. Esto puede hacerse a mano o también en canales de lavado, en estos últimos las cerezas maduras sanas por su peso se mueven por el fondo del canal y las cerezas secas, vanas e inmaduras flotan.

Una vez clasificadas, se procede a empezar el proceso de secado, se realiza en patios de secado (generalmente) o en esteras o camas levantadas del piso (camas africanas), tanto a libre exposición a la luz del sol, como en superficies cubiertas tipo invernadero.

El proceso de secado debe ser homogéneo, por lo cual de manera manual y regular se monitorea y mezcla las cerezas. El secado en este tipo de proceso tarda generalmente 20 días, y varía dependiendo de las condiciones climáticas, podría llegar a tardar hasta 40 días.

 Medianos y grandes productores tienen mecanizado el proceso de secado para acelerar y facilitar el proceso, en estos casos es recomendable hacer previamente secado de agua del café al sol.

La etapa de secado es de vital importancia ya que afecta la calidad final del café verde, y naturalmente el sabor: si se seca demasiado, el café se volverá quebradizo y puede dañarse en la trilla. Un grano quebrado es considerado un grano defectuoso. Si no se seca suficientemente, tendrá demasiada humedad y será mucho más susceptible a hongos y bacterias. La humedad final y más adecuada del grano es de 11,5%.

Cafés lavados o proceso húmedo:

Este método requiere cantidades considerables de agua, así como un equipo concreto. Se recolectan los granos maduros manualmente, luego se hace una selección para remover hojas, granos verdes o pintones, piedras y cualquier otra impureza o suciedad que pueda haberse mezclado al momento de recolectar.

El siguiente paso consiste en: separar la pulpa o cáscara de los granos contenidos dentro de la cereza. Este proceso se conoce como despulpado y se hace con una máquina que aprieta las cerezas entre planchas fijas y móviles. La cáscara queda a un lado y los granos quedan a otro lado. Los granos pelados están recubiertos de una sustancia viscosa llamada mucilago o miel del café. El café se deja en reposo entre 12 a 24 horas en fermentación, en este tiempo la almendra absorbe cualidades organolépticas del mucilago e inicia su proceso de separación del mismo con ayuda de enzimas naturales del café, éste mucilago es removido con agua limpia.

El café pergamino lavado tiene en esta etapa un 57% de humedad aproximadamente.

Para hacer que disminuya la humedad hasta el nivel máximo de 12% se seca el café, bien sea al sol, o en secadora mecánica o combinado los dos métodos. El secado al sol se hace en superficies grandes y lisas de ladrillo o de cemento que se llaman patios, en camas de madera móviles o en mesas de alambre de malla fina, tanto a libre exposición a la luz del sol, como en superficies cubiertas tipo invernadero. Se extiende los granos en capas de entre 2 cm y 10 cm, y se revuelve con frecuencia para conseguir un secado uniforme. El secado al sol debería llevar de 5 a 10 días, según la temperatura y la humedad del ambiente.

En plantaciones grandes en las que en plena época de cosecha puede que haya mucho más café del que pueda secarse al sol o por poco brillo solar se hace necesario usar máquinas de secado con aire caliente. No obstante, el proceso requiere mucho cuidado para lograr un secado satisfactorio y económico sin que se dañe la calidad.

El método de vía húmeda se usa en general para todos los cafés Arábica, se usa rara vez en los cafés Robustas.

Los atributos de sabor de los cafés lavados son cuerpo más ligero, tazas más limpias, sabores más frutales y florales y acidez más brillante o intensa. La mayoría de los países reconocidos por la acidez de sus cafés, procesan su café bajo el método lavado para conservas estas características.

Proceso Honey o miel

Hasta el retiro de la cereza del café el proceso es el mismo que en el método lavado, en el proceso honey no se remueve el mucílago, e inmediatamente después del despulpado inicia el proceso de secado con el mucilago adherido al grano de café, el secado puede ser a la sombra o bajo los rayos del sol.

Contrario a lo algunos se imaginan, el café procesado de esta manera no sabe a miel ni tampoco se utiliza miel en el proceso. El nombre lo recibo porque al tacto, como está recubierto con el mucilago, se siente pegajoso como la miel.

En algunas regiones se distingue entre 3 tipos diferentes de proceso honey: el amarillo, rojo y negro. La mayor diferencia está en el sabor, que se desarrolló a medida que se ajustan el tiempo y técnicas de secado:

El Honey Amarillo es el que se seca más rápido (aproximadamente 8 días) y es en este método donde el café recibe la mayor cantidad de sol, dando al pergamino que recubre el grano de café un tono amarillo claro para el momento en que termina de secarse

El honey rojo toma un poco más de tiempo en llegar al nivel óptimo de humedad, En este método el café se seca a la sombra o sin rayos solares directos, y por esta razón obtiene su color característico.

El honey negro o black tarda la mayor cantidad de tiempo en secar, y este método, el café se cubre con un plástico negro en camas similares a las camas africanas. Este último es el más complejo de los 3, con cuerpo alto, abundante en sabor y es naturalmente más costoso en el mercado. Cabe anotar que el resultado no es un café con el pergamino negro completamente, sino que es un poquito más oscuro que el honey rojo.

El secado del pergamino aún con el mucílago recubierto tiene un impacto directo sobre el dulzor en la taza. Los cafés Honey tienen generalmente un sabor único, caracterizado por un dulzor diferente, muchos sabores frutales y acidez dulce.

De los 3 procesos más comunes, El honey y el natural son los más amigables son el medio ambiente debido a que no se utiliza una sola gota de agua al despulpar, lavar o fermentar. Esto ahorra grandes cantidades de agua.

Ambos métodos se pueden implementar en zonas remotas ya que se elimina las dificultades que acarrean transportar las cerezas recogidas a la central de beneficio que en muchos casos no está cerca al cultivo. Este transporte puede incluso causar, en algunos casos, problemas de fermentación no deseada y potencial degradación de la calidad.

Coffee characteristics

Coffee produced by members of ASPROUNIÓN has the following characteristics: Culture in the shade, more than 15 fruit trees and staple food crops accompany coffee farming. These trees and plants provide shelter against the severity of the weather and are a habitat for birds, mammal and other fauna, provide organic matter and protect the soil, generating a microclimate that is favourable to the quality of the bean. Varieties such as Caturra, Colombia, Bourbon have been established for over 60 years and in the last 10 years, new varieties such as pink Bourbon, Geisha, Mocha and other have been established giving excellent results. These coffees already produce a SCAA cup above 84+ but thanks to beneficiating processes being adopted, have produced cups of up to 92 SCAA points.

Natural or dry process:

The dry method is also known as natural process and it possibly is the oldest and simplest. It requires little machinery but it is more labour intensive and requires more space for the drying operation.

This method consists of drying the whole cherry after harvest, without removing the skin, shell or cherry.

Firstly, harvested cherries are classified and cleaned in order to remove those that are ripe or damaged or affected by insects. This could be done both manually and in washing channels. In the latter, healthy ripe cherries circulate at the bottom of the channel whilst dry, empty and unripe cherries float.

Once classified, the drying process commences. This is carried out in drying yards (generally), on mats or raised beds (African beds), either in the open air in the sun or in undercover areas like greenhouses.

Drying must be a homogeneous process for which cherries are regularly checked and mixed manually. This type of process takes about 20 days and depending on weather conditions, it might take up to 40.

Medium and large size producers use a mechanised drying process in order to accelerate and facilitate the process. In these cases it is advisable to dry the water from the coffee in the sun.

The drying operation is of vital importance since it affects the final quality of green coffee and certainly its flavour: if over-dried it will become brittle and become damaged during threshing. Broken beans are considered defective beans. Coffee that has not been dried sufficiently will be too moist and vulnerable to the attack of fungi and bacteria. The final and most suitable moisture content of coffee beans is 11.5%.

Washed coffee or wet processed coffee:

This method requires considerable amounts of water, as well as specific equipment. Ripe beans are picked manually, then it is necessary to remove leaves, unripe or spotted beans, rocks and any other impurity or dirt attached during harvest.

The following stage consists of separating the pulp or the shell from the beans inside the cherries. This process is known as pulping and is done with a machine that squeezes the beans between fix and mobile plates. The shell stays on one side and the beans on the other. A viscose substance called mucilage or coffee honey covers the pulped beans. Coffee is left to rest fermenting for 12 to 24 hours. During this time, the bean absorbs organoleptic qualities of mucilage at the same time that commences to separate from it with the aid of coffee natural enzymes. Mucilage is then removed with clean water.

Washed pergamino coffee has at this stage a moist content of 57% approximately.

To reduce moist down to the maximum level of 12%, coffee has to be dried, either in the sun or with a mechanical drier or combining both. Drying in the sun is done on large and smooth brick or concrete surfaces called yards, in mobile timber beds or fine mesh wire tables both in the open air in the sun and in undercover greenhouse type areas. The beans are spread on 2 cm to 10 cm layers and they are stirred frequently to make them dry evenly. Drying in the sun should take between 5 and 10 days, subject to air temperature and humidity.

In large plantations where coffee harvested may exceed the capacity of space for drying in the sun or due to low sunlight, it is necessary to use driers with hot air. Nonetheless, this operation requires extra care to achieve satisfactory and economic drying without affecting quality. Wet method is generally used for all Arabica coffees but rarely for Robustas coffees.

Attributes of washed coffees are lighter body, cleaner cups, more fruity or floral flavours and brighter or more intense acidity. The majority of countries renown by the acidity of their coffees uses the washed coffee method to preserve these attributes.

Honey process

Up to the removal of the coffee bean, this process is the same as the wet method. However in the honey process the mucilage is not removed and immediately after pulping the drying process commences with mucilage attached to the coffee bean. Drying may be in the shade or in the sun.

Contrary to what some may imagine, coffee processed under this method does not taste like honey and honey is not used in the process. This name was given because the bean covered by mucilage feels sticky like honey.
In some regions, 3 different honey processes can be found: the yellow, the red and the black. The main difference is in flavour, developed as drying time and techniques are adjusted:

Yellow honey is the one that dries faster (8 days approximately) and this is the method where coffee receives the most sun, giving the parchment around the bean a light yellow colour at the time of completing the drying process.

Red honey takes longer to achieve the optimum moisture level and in this method coffee is dried in the shade or without direct sunlight and that is what gives it its characteristic colour.

Black honey takes the longest in drying and for this method coffee is covered with a black plastic sheet on beds similar to the African beds. This is the most complex method of the 3; with high body, abundant flavour and the coffee obtained is understandably the priciest in the market. It is important to mention that this is not a coffee with a completely black parchment but slightly darker than the red one.

The drying of the parchment even covered with mucilage has a direct impact on cup sweetness. Honey coffees usually have a unique flavour, characterised by a different sweetness, many fruity flavours and sweet acidity.
Of the most common 3 processes, Honey and Natural are the most environmentally friendly because no water is used for pulping, washing or fermenting. This saves large amounts of water.

Both methods can be implemented in remote areas as they eliminate the difficulties created by transporting the cherries harvested to the beneficiation plant that often is not close to the cultivation area. This transport may sometimes cause detrimental fermentation problems and potential loss of quality.

Coffee characteristics

Coffee produced by members of ASPROUNIÓN has the following characteristics: Culture in the shade, more than 15 fruit trees and staple food crops accompany coffee farming. These trees and plants provide shelter against the severity of the weather and are a habitat for birds, mammal and other fauna, provide organic matter and protect the soil, generating a microclimate that is favourable to the quality of the bean. Varieties such as Caturra, Colombia, Bourbon have been established for over 60 years and in the last 10 years, new varieties such as pink Bourbon, Geisha, Mocha and other have been established giving excellent results. These coffees already produce a SCAA cup above 84+ but thanks to beneficiating processes being adopted, have produced cups of up to 92 SCAA points.

Natural or dry process:

The dry method is also known as natural process and it possibly is the oldest and simplest. It requires little machinery but it is more labour intensive and requires more space for the drying operation.

This method consists of drying the whole cherry after harvest, without removing the skin, shell or cherry.

Firstly, harvested cherries are classified and cleaned in order to remove those that are ripe or damaged or affected by insects. This could be done both manually and in washing channels. In the latter, healthy ripe cherries circulate at the bottom of the channel whilst dry, empty and unripe cherries float.

Once classified, the drying process commences. This is carried out in drying yards (generally), on mats or raised beds (African beds), either in the open air in the sun or in undercover areas like greenhouses.

Drying must be a homogeneous process for which cherries are regularly checked and mixed manually. This type of process takes about 20 days and depending on weather conditions, it might take up to 40.

Medium and large size producers use a mechanised drying process in order to accelerate and facilitate the process. In these cases it is advisable to dry the water from the coffee in the sun.

The drying operation is of vital importance since it affects the final quality of green coffee and certainly its flavour: if over-dried it will become brittle and become damaged during threshing. Broken beans are considered defective beans. Coffee that has not been dried sufficiently will be too moist and vulnerable to the attack of fungi and bacteria. The final and most suitable moisture content of coffee beans is 11.5%.

Washed coffee or wet processed coffee:

This method requires considerable amounts of water, as well as specific equipment. Ripe beans are picked manually, then it is necessary to remove leaves, unripe or spotted beans, rocks and any other impurity or dirt attached during harvest.

The following stage consists of separating the pulp or the shell from the beans inside the cherries. This process is known as pulping and is done with a machine that squeezes the beans between fix and mobile plates. The shell stays on one side and the beans on the other. A viscose substance called mucilage or coffee honey covers the pulped beans. Coffee is left to rest fermenting for 12 to 24 hours. During this time, the bean absorbs organoleptic qualities of mucilage at the same time that commences to separate from it with the aid of coffee natural enzymes. Mucilage is then removed with clean water.

Washed pergamino coffee has at this stage a moist content of 57% approximately.

To reduce moist down to the maximum level of 12%, coffee has to be dried, either in the sun or with a mechanical drier or combining both. Drying in the sun is done on large and smooth brick or concrete surfaces called yards, in mobile timber beds or fine mesh wire tables both in the open air in the sun and in undercover greenhouse type areas. The beans are spread on 2 cm to 10 cm layers and they are stirred frequently to make them dry evenly. Drying in the sun should take between 5 and 10 days, subject to air temperature and humidity.

In large plantations where coffee harvested may exceed the capacity of space for drying in the sun or due to low sunlight, it is necessary to use driers with hot air. Nonetheless, this operation requires extra care to achieve satisfactory and economic drying without affecting quality. Wet method is generally used for all Arabica coffees but rarely for Robustas coffees.

Attributes of washed coffees are lighter body, cleaner cups, more fruity or floral flavours and brighter or more intense acidity. The majority of countries renown by the acidity of their coffees uses the washed coffee method to preserve these attributes.

Honey process

Up to the removal of the coffee bean, this process is the same as the wet method. However in the honey process the mucilage is not removed and immediately after pulping the drying process commences with mucilage attached to the coffee bean. Drying may be in the shade or in the sun.

Contrary to what some may imagine, coffee processed under this method does not taste like honey and honey is not used in the process. This name was given because the bean covered by mucilage feels sticky like honey.
In some regions, 3 different honey processes can be found: the yellow, the red and the black. The main difference is in flavour, developed as drying time and techniques are adjusted:

Yellow honey is the one that dries faster (8 days approximately) and this is the method where coffee receives the most sun, giving the parchment around the bean a light yellow colour at the time of completing the drying process.

Red honey takes longer to achieve the optimum moisture level and in this method coffee is dried in the shade or without direct sunlight and that is what gives it its characteristic colour.

Black honey takes the longest in drying and for this method coffee is covered with a black plastic sheet on beds similar to the African beds. This is the most complex method of the 3; with high body, abundant flavour and the coffee obtained is understandably the priciest in the market. It is important to mention that this is not a coffee with a completely black parchment but slightly darker than the red one.

The drying of the parchment even covered with mucilage has a direct impact on cup sweetness. Honey coffees usually have a unique flavour, characterised by a different sweetness, many fruity flavours and sweet acidity.
Of the most common 3 processes, Honey and Natural are the most environmentally friendly because no water is used for pulping, washing or fermenting. This saves large amounts of water.

Both methods can be implemented in remote areas as they eliminate the difficulties created by transporting the cherries harvested to the beneficiation plant that often is not close to the cultivation area. This transport may sometimes cause detrimental fermentation problems and potential loss of quality.

ASPROUNION

Cafe La Jacoba